Simple

Continuous

Perfect

Perfect Continuous

Present

V1

He,she,it:  V1+-es

Auxiliary: do/does

 

1)Regular actions in the present.

Markers: always, usually, often, sometimes, rarely, never, every day, once/twice a week/month etc.

2)Facts.

 

Am/is/are + Ving

 

 

 

1)Actions in progress at the moment of speaking. Actions happening around now/temporary situations.

Markers: now, currently, at the moment, at present.

2)Fixed arrangements in the future.

Markers: today, tomorrow etc.

 

Have/has + V3

 

 

 

1)Life experience.

Markers: ever, never, once/twice/three times, in my life etc.

2)Finished actions having results now (connected with the present!!!). Actions that started in the past and have finished by now (+ states that started in the past and continue now)

Markers:already, yet, just, since…, for…, recently, this week/month/year etc.

Have/has + Been+ Ving

 

 

 

Actions in progress that started in the past and have finished by now or are still in progress. Actions that have been happening for some time.

Markers: How long…?, for…, since…, all day etc.

Past

V2

Auxiliary: did

 

Finished single actions in the past (not connected with the present!!!).

Markers: yesterday, last week/month, 1 week ago, in 2017 etc.

Was/were + Ving

 

 

Actions in progress at a particular moment in the past.

Markers: at 3 o’clock, while…

Had+V3

 

 

Actions finished by a particular moment in the past/before another action in the past.

Markers:by 3 o’clock,  by the time…

 

Had+ been +Ving

 

 

Actions that had been in progress by a particular moment in the past

Markers: for…, since…

Future

Will+V1

 

Uncertain action in the future

 + offers, on-the-spot/ spontaneous decisions, promises.

Markers: tomorrow, the day after tomorrow, next week, on Monday etc.

Will +be+ Ving

 

Actions in progress at a particular moment in the future.

Markers: at 3 o’clock tomorrow, this time next week

Will+ have+ V3

 

Actions that will have finished by a particular moment in the future.

 

Will + have + been + Ving

 

Actions that will have been in progress by a particular moment in the future.

Future-in-the-past

Would + V1

Would + be + Ving

Would + have+ V3

would + have + been + Ving