Meaning

Present Perfect

Have/has+V3

Past Simple

V2

1.Actions in the past that have finished by now and are connected with NOW !

 I’ve written the letter.

 She has come home. (She’s come)…

 We have watched the film. (We’ve.. watched)

2. Actions that have a result in the present.

I’ve bought a good book! (I have it now)

He’s won a lottery! (He has the money now)

3. States that began in the past and continue in the present (stative verbs).

 I have lived here for 3 years(up to now).

 They have been together since 2015 (up to now).

4. Life experience (without mentioning the exact time) with never, ever, many times

 I have never jumped with a parachute.

 She has been to Paris 3 times.

1.Single actions in the past that are NOT connected with NOW !

 I wrote a letter in the morning.

 She came home at 7 p.m.

 We watched a film on Sunday.

Compare!

I bought a good book once (It doesn’t matter/unknown if I have it now)

 He won a lottery last year. (It doesn’t matter/unknown if he has the money now)

 Compare!

 I lived here 3 years ago (now I don’t).

 They were together in 2015 (now they aren’t).

 

Compare!

 the exact time is mentioned

 I jumped with a parachute last summer.

She went to Paris in September.

Forms

Present Perfect Past Simple

 + I have sent an email (I’ve sent).

 – I haven’t sent…

 ? Have you sent…?

 Sp ? What have you sent…?

 + She has sent an email (She’s sent).

 – She hasn’t sent…

 ? Has she sent…?

 Sp ? What has she sent…?

 + I sent an email in the morning.

 – I didn’t send…

 ? Did you send…?

 Sp ? What did you send…?

 

Markers

Present Perfect Past Simple

 Recently , lately

 For (some time), Since

 Already, Yet, Just

 Never, Ever

 For ages

 In the last week/year, two/three days/weeks/years

 So far

How long…? (+ stative verbs)

 How many times..? – once, twice, three times…

 Look! Listen!

 + Unfinished period of time: this week/ month/year,  today etc.

 Yesterday

 Last week/ month/year

 (Some time) ago

 When..?

 + Particular time in the past, finished period of time: in 2010, in October, at 3 o’clock, in the morning etc.