Reason/cause

… because/ as / since / seeing that + clause 

… because of / on account of/ in view of + a noun/gerund

…owing to / due to + a noun/gerund/

the fact that + clause

 

Examples

Purpose

To/In order to So as to + infinitive

So that + a clause 

Examples

Result/Consequence

Consequently / As a consequence / As a result / Therefore, …  + clause

As a consequence of / As a result of + noun 

So, … + cause

 

Examples

Addition

Moreover / Furthermore / In addition / Additionally / Besides What’s more, … (used after a strong pause and separated from the sentences. They are introduced by a comma). 

As well as / In addition to / Beside + noun/gerund

 

Examples

Contrast/Concession

In spite of / Despite + a noun/gerund 

Although / (Even) though + a clause 

However / Nevertheless / Nonetheless/Still / Yet, …  (used to introduce a new idea which marks a contrast with previously stated ideas).

In contrast to / Contrary to + a noun

On the contrary,

… whereas (used to link two contrasting ideas) + a clause.

On the one hand … On the other hand (links two contrasting ideas / paragraphs)

Examples

Exemplification

For example / For instance,

such as … 

Examples

Succession

First of all / Firstly / To begin with / First …. 

Second / Secondly / Then … 

Third / Thirdly / After that

Examples

Conclusion

Finally / in short / to sum up / in conclusion / lastly / last but not least…  

Examples

Exercises